The Golden Calf
Rabbi Israel Chait
A student’s transcription
Moses ascended the mountain to have a rendezvous with God to learn first hand the teachings of the Torah and then to transmit them to the Jewish people. Instead Moses descended to a nation of idolaters rather than a people committed to accept a moral law based upon their intellectual conviction. The Torah explains the reason for this transformation. In Exodus 32:1, the Torah tells us that the people saw that Moses tarried from coming down the mountain and that this precipitated their desire to build a golden calf. Rashi explains that the nation miscalculated the day of Moses's descent. Moses advised the people that he would return in forty days. Moses was not counting his departure as day one. He meant forty complete days, thus his return would be on the forty-first day, which is the seventeenth of Tammuz. Therefore their calculation was off by one day. Rashi teaches us that as a result of this miscalculation, on the sixteenth of Tammuz, “Satan came and brought confusion to the world, and showed the Israelites a vision of thick darkness.” This caused them to say, "Moses is definitely dead" and it ignited their desire to serve other gods.
Upon analyzing this Rashi, two basic questions must be asked: What compels Rashi to utilize Satan as the vehicle for their confusion? Their mistake in determining Moses's return was based upon their erroneous calculations. This alone should have been sufficient justification for their concluding that Moses was dead and was not returning. Furthermore, Aaron devises different schemes to hinder their attempts to serve different God's. Why didn't he simply advise them of their mistaken calculation? Aaron certainly was aware of the proper count or at the very least recognized their mistake.
We must appreciate that the Israelites had recently been liberated from Egypt. In Egypt they were exposed to, and influenced by, the pagan practices of that society. Therefore, they still had an attraction to the primitive, and were still subject to the insecurities of the instinctual part of their personalities. The entire event of Moses ascending the mountain to speak to God was to them, a mystical phenomenon. They were in great awe of this unique experience. Thus, when they saw the thick darkness, rather than attributing it to poor weather conditions, their emotions overwhelmed them. They had visions of Moses' failed mission which image was bolstered by their miscalculation. The Satan, as Maimonides teaches us, is the same as the yetzer harah: man's evil inclinations [the instincts]. Their emotions, which were fostered by their insecurities and primitive proclivities, caused them to conjure these fantastic ominous visions. Chazal teach us that they saw an image of Moses in a coffin. This manifests their regression to the depths of their imagination. They were so overwhelmed by the mystical, that Chazal felt compelled to point out this image, to demonstrate that their total perception of reality was distorted.
Upon their concluding that Moses had died, the Israelites expressed their desire to make many gods that would lead them. Their need for a god was simply a need for security to fill the void that Moses' ostensible departure created.
Rashi notes that they desired many gods. This again reflects the primitive emotional state. They had desires for different gods, to cater to each of their diverse needs. Their basic insecurities and trepidations were expressed by their desire for different gods, that would satisfy all their personal whims and grant them a sense of security.
The insight the Torah teaches with the account of the Golden Calf is extremely relevant. Modern man might think that these are pagan emotions to which he is not susceptible. However, one need only observe Christianity to recognize the strong emotion of idol worship, even today. Christians idolize a physical statue which represents a human being whom they view as God. Objectively, it may seem absurd, but yet its appeal attests to man’s primitive desire for the security of the physical.
Chazal appreciated the strength of these emotions. Rabbi Akiva did not want to learn that the “et" (together with) of “et Hashem Elokecha teerah" as including Talmidei Chachamim, because of this emotion: deification of man is idol worship. Rabbi Yishmael argues and states that this word “et” intends to include the Talmid Chacham. The respect the Torah envisions for a scholar is not for the individual per se, but rather the wisdom which he acquired. He is the embodiment of an individual who utilized his Tzelem Elokim for its true objective.
It would seem that Aaron also underestimated the strength of these emotions. Aaron recognized their clamor to create new gods as reflective of their primitive emotions. He recognized the futility in trying to demonstrate the error of their calculations. The nation was no longer operating under their intellectual faculty. The primitive behavioral patterns to which they were subject in Egypt were exerting their influence over the nation. The mixed multitude whom departed Egypt with them provoked much of their regression. Rashi advises us that the Mixed Multitude (not descendants of Abraham) used their “magic”(1) to create the calf. In fact, they initiated this entire service and the Israelites followed. The Mixed Multitude had a greater yearning for the security of the physical as a means to relate to God. Therefore, they utilized the “magic” they learned in Egypt. Magic is not some supernatural force. It too requires a discipline, where one learns to switch the apparent relationship between cause and effect to which we are accustomed. It therefore is fascinating because it distracts the observer who is amazed since the feat appears not to function in accordance with standard causal relationships.
Aaron took an active role in the making of the Golden Calf. However, the role Aaron played was really a result of careful analysis. In reality he did not try to facilitate its construction, but rather, attempted to hinder its completion. He analyzed the behavior of the Israelites and tried to deal with them based upon their state of mind. He recognized a step by step regression in their rational faculty as they came under the grip of this overwhelming emotion. Aaron's observations are expressed in a Midrash quoted by Rashi. Aaron observed several things. He saw the Israelites kill his nephew Chur, who tried to rebuke them. He observed and concluded that it would be better if the Israelites transgression was ascribed to him rather than to them. He also concluded that if they built the altar on their own, it would be finished immediately. He therefore undertook its construction hoping to tarry in his work, in order to delay them until Moses arrived. Aaron had recognized that their behavior patterns reflected the powerful sway of their emotions. The first thing the Israelites sought was a substitute leader. This reflected their need for the security of the physical. He requested their ornaments in an effort to appeal to their greed. This was essentially a delay tactic. He assumed that they would be reluctant because he thought that their greed would deter their actions. However, the Torah teaches us “vayitparku”: they readily removed all their jewelry. He thereby recognized and appreciated the overwhelming and dominating effect of these emotions as evidenced by the alacrity with which they responded to his request for their valuables. Thereafter, he observed that they killed Chur. This represented that they were no longer functioning with even a scintilla of rationality. They could not tolerate Chur's rebuke and their murderous actions evidenced their total identification with the calf. He thus observed and concluded that at best, he could only slow their progress. Any attempt by him to halt the construction of the calf would have been futile, and surely would have caused them to regress to the depth of their primitivism.
A precursory review of his actions would indicate that he was helping them, however a more scrupulous investigation as articulated, reveals his true intentions. He desired that their guilt be ascribed to him in order to assuage the guilty feelings they would experience upon Moses' return. If the Israelites felt absolute culpability because of their actions, their feelings of guilt would render them incapable of doing Teshuva.
God still finds fault with Aaron's action. Exodus 32:23 states, "And when Moses saw that the people were broken loose for Aaron had let them loose for a division among their enemies." This criticism is lodged against Aaron for one cannot make compromises with idol worship. The emotion is so powerful that if one allows it to be expressed in his behavioral patterns, it will ultimately dominate his actions and destroy him. Moses, upon his return, took extremely drastic measures. He openly expressed outrage and threw the tablets to the ground and shattered them. He then gathered the Levites, who killed three thousand men. Moses' extreme actions were purposeful to demonstrate that one cannot compromise nor tolerate the emotion for idolatry. The basic philosophy of Judaism is antithetical to these type of emotions.
(1) Magic is explained as slight of hand by Saadia Gaon. Judaism accepts there are no other powers but God alone.